class FrameSet:
def get(self, identifier: FrameIdentifier) -> Optional[Dict[str, AttributeValue]]:

Retrieve the attributes of a frame by its identifier.

def get_keys(self) -> List[FrameIdentifier]:

Return a list of all FrameIdentifiers described by this FrameSet.

def get_all_frames(self) -> Dict[FrameIdentifier, Dict[str, AttributeValue]]:
def insert( self, identifier: FrameIdentifier, attributes: Dict[str, AttributeValue]):

Insert a new FrameIdentifier, overwriting any existing one.

def merge(self, other: quil.program.FrameSet):

Merge another FrameSet into this one, overwriting any existing keys.

def intersection(self, identifiers: FrozenSet[FrameIdentifier]) -> quil.program.FrameSet:

Return a new FrameSet which describes only the given FrameIdentifiers.

def is_empty(self) -> bool:

Returns True if this FrameSet defines no frames.

def to_instructions(self) -> List[Instruction]:

Return the Quil instructions which define the contained frames.

class Program:
def parse(input: str) -> Program:

Parses the given Quil string and returns a new Program.

Raises a ProgramError if the given string isn't valid Quil.

def to_quil(self) -> str:

Attempt to convert the instruction to a valid Quil string.

Raises an exception if the instruction can't be converted to valid Quil.

def to_quil_or_debug(self) -> str:

Convert the instruction to a Quil string.

If any part of the instruction can't be converted to valid Quil, it will be printed in a human-readable debug format.

def clone_without_body_instructions(self) -> Program:

Creates a clone of this Program with an empty body instructions list.

def copy(self) -> Program:

Creates a clone of this Program.

def control_flow_graph(self) -> quil.program.ControlFlowGraph:

Return the control flow graph of the program.

def dagger(self) -> Program:

Creates a new conjugate transpose of the Program by reversing the order of gate instructions and applying the DAGGER modifier to each.

Raises a GateError if any of the instructions in the program are not a `Gate

def expand_calibrations(self) -> Program:

Expand any instructions in the program which have a matching calibration, leaving the others unchanged.

Recurses though each instruction while ensuring there is no cycle in the expansion graph (i.e. no calibration expands directly or indirectly into itself)

def into_simplified(self) -> Program:

Simplify this program into a new Program which contains only instructions and definitions which are executed; effectively, perform dead code removal.


  • All calibrations, following calibration expansion
  • Frame definitions which are not used by any instruction such as PULSE or CAPTURE
  • Waveform definitions which are not used by any instruction

When a valid program is simplified, it remains valid.

def get_used_qubits(self) -> Set[Qubit]:

Returns a set consisting of every Qubit that is used in the program.

def add_instruction(self, instruction: Instruction):

Add an instruction to the end of the program.

def add_instructions(self, instructions: Sequence[Instruction]):

Add a list of instructions to the end of the program.

def to_instructions(self) -> Sequence[Instruction]:
def to_unitary( self, n_qubits: int) -> numpy.ndarray[typing.Any, numpy.dtype[numpy.complex128]]:
def filter_instructions(self, predicate: Callable[[Instruction], bool]) -> Program:

Return a new Program containing only the instructions for which predicate returns True.

def resolve_placeholders(self) -> None:

Resolve TargetPlaceholders and QubitPlaceholders within the program using default resolvers.

The default resolver will be used to generate a unique value for that placeholder within the scope of the program using an auto-incrementing value (for qubit) or suffix (for target) while ensuring that unique value is not already in use within the program.

def wrap_in_loop( self, loop_count_reference: MemoryReference, start_target: Target, end_target: Target, iterations: int) -> Program:

Return a copy of the Program wrapped in a loop that repeats iterations times.

The loop is constructed by wrapping the body of the program in classical Quil instructions. The given loop_count_reference must refer to an INTEGER memory region. The value at the reference given will be set to iterations and decremented in the loop. The loop will terminate when the reference reaches 0. For this reason your program should not itself modify the value at the reference unless you intend to modify the remaining number of iterations (i.e. to break the loop).

The given start_target and end_target will be used as the entry and exit points for the loop, respectively. You should provide unique quil.instructions.Targets that won't be used elsewhere in the program.

If iterations is 0, then a copy of the program is returned without any changes. Raises a TypeError if iterations is negative.

def resolve_placeholders_with_custom_resolvers( self, *, target_resolver: Optional[Callable[[TargetPlaceholder], Optional[str]]] = None, qubit_resolver: Optional[Callable[[QubitPlaceholder], Optional[int]]] = None):

Resolve TargetPlaceholders and QubitPlaceholders within the program.

The resolved values will remain unique to that placeholder within the scope of the program.

If you provide target_resolver and/or qubit_resolver, those will be used to resolve those values respectively. If your resolver returns None for a particular placeholder, it will not be replaced but will be left as a placeholder.

If you do not provide a resolver for a placeholder, a default resolver will be used which will generate a unique value for that placeholder within the scope of the program using an auto-incrementing value (for qubit) or suffix (for target) while ensuring that unique value is not already in use within the program.

memory_regions: Dict[str, quil.program.MemoryRegion]
body_instructions: List[Instruction]
gate_definitions: Dict[str, GateDefinition]
waveforms: Dict[str, Waveform]
declarations: Dict[str, Declaration]
class CalibrationSet:
def expand( self, instruction: Instruction, previous_calibrations: Sequence[Instruction]) -> List[Instruction]:

Given an instruction, return the instructions to which it is expanded if there is a match.

Recursively calibrate instructions, returning an error if a calibration directly or indirectly expands into itself.

def get_match_for_measurement(self, measurement: Measurement) -> Optional[MeasureCalibrationDefinition]:

Returns the last-specified MeasureCalibrationDefinition that matches the target qubit (if any), or otherwise the last-specified one that specified no qubit.

def get_match_for_gate(self, gate: Gate) -> Optional[Calibration]:

Return the final calibration which matches the gate per the QuilT specification.

A calibration matches a gate if:

  1. It has the same name
  2. It has the same modifiers
  3. It has the same qubit count (any mix of fixed & variable)
  4. It has the same parameter count (both specified and unspecified)
  5. All fixed qubits in the calibration definition match those in the gate
  6. All specified parameters in the calibration definition match those in the gate
def is_empty(self) -> bool:

Returns True if the CalibrationSet contains no data.

def insert_calibration(self, calibration: Calibration) -> Optional[Calibration]:

Insert another Calibration (DEFCAL) to the set.

If a calibration with the same name already exists, it is overwritten and this function returns the previous calibration. Otherwise, None is returned.

def insert_measurement_calibration( self, calibration: MeasureCalibrationDefinition) -> Optional[MeasureCalibrationDefinition]:

Add another MeasureCalibrationDefinition (DEFCAL MEASURE) to the set.

If a calibration with the same name already exists, it is overwritten and this function returns the previous calibration. Otherwise, None is returned.

def extend(self, other: quil.program.CalibrationSet):

Append another [CalibrationSet] onto this one.

def to_instructions(self):

Return the Quil instructions which describe the contained calibrations.

measure_calibrations: List[MeasureCalibrationDefinition]
calibrations: List[Calibration]
class MemoryRegion:
size: Vector
sharing: Optional[Sharing]
class BasicBlock:
BasicBlock(instance: quil.program.BasicBlock)

Create a new instance of a BasicBlock (or a subclass) using an existing instance.

def as_schedule_seconds(self, program: Program) -> quil.program.ScheduleSeconds:

Return the ScheduleSeconds representing the timing of the instructions within the block.

  • Expanding each instruction within the block using the program's calibration definitions
  • Resolving the ScheduleSeconds of the expanded instructions
  • Mapping calibrated instructions back to the original instructions within this block, such that the block's instruction is represented as a timespan encompassing all of its expanded instructions
  • program: The program containing the calibrations to be used to schedule this block. Generally, this should be the program from which the block was extracted.

Important note: If the basic block contains gates, the program must contain corresponding DEFCALs for those gates. Gates do not inherently have durations, but rather inherit them from the PULSE, CAPTURE, DELAY, and other instructions within their calibrations. Without a calibration, a gate's duration cannot be computed.

The following example demonstrates construction of such a schedule for a simple program without explicit control flow (and thus with only one basic block):

.. example-code::

.. code-block:: python

    from quil.program import Program

    program = Program.parse("CZ 0 1; CZ 0 2")


    control_flow_graph = program.control_flow_graph()
    assert control_flow_graph.has_dynamic_control_flow() == False

    basic_blocks = control_flow_graph.basic_blocks()
    assert len(basic_blocks) == 1

    schedule = blocks[0].as_schedule_seconds(program)
    print(f"Duration = {schedule.duration()}")


Note: when an instruction is expanded, the "time" of that original instruction includes the times of all of the resulting instructions. This may cause gate times to be longer than a user might expect.

To understand why, consider a program like this:

.. example-code::

.. code-block:: text

    # One-qubit frame
    DEFFRAME 0 "a":
        ATTRIBUTE: 1

    # Two-qubit frame
    DEFFRAME 0 1 "b":
        ATTRIBUTE: 1

    DEFCAL A 0:
        PULSE 0 "a" flat(duration: 1.0)

    DEFCAL B 0 1:
        FENCE 1
        PULSE 0 1 "b" flat(duration: 1.0)

    A 0
    B 0 1

B 0 will be scheduled from time 0 to time 2, because its inner FENCE is scheduled for time 0. This may be unexpected if the user expects to see only the timing of the inner PULSE.

def gate_depth(self, gate_minimum_qubit_count: int) -> int:

Returns the length of the longest path from an initial instruction (one with no prerequisite instructions) to a final instruction (one with no dependent instructions), where the length of a path is the number of gate instructions in the path.

  • gate_minimum_qubit_count: The minimum number of qubits in a gate for it to be counted in the depth.
def instructions(self) -> List[Instruction]:

Return a list of the instructions in the block, in order of definition.

This does not include the label or terminator instructions.

def label(self) -> Optional[Target]:

Return the label of the block, if any. This is used to target this block in control flow.

def terminator(self) -> Optional[Instruction]:

Return the control flow terminator instruction of the block, if any.

If this is None, the implicit behavior is to "continue" to the subsequent block.

class ControlFlowGraph:

Representation of a control flow graph (CFG) for a Quil program.

The CFG is a directed graph where each node is a basic block and each edge is a control flow transition between two basic blocks.

ControlFlowGraph(instance: quil.program.ControlFlowGraph)

Create a new instance of a ControlFlowGraph (or a subclass) using an existing instance.

def has_dynamic_control_flow(self) -> bool:

Return True if the program has dynamic control flow, i.e. contains a conditional branch instruction.

False does not imply that there is only one basic block in the program. Multiple basic blocks may have non-conditional control flow among them, in which the execution order is deterministic and does not depend on program state. This may be a sequence of basic blocks with fixed JUMPs or without explicit terminators.

def basic_blocks(self) -> List[quil.program.BasicBlock]:

Return a list of all the basic blocks in the control flow graph, in order of definition.

class ScheduleSeconds:
def items(self) -> List[quil.program.ScheduleSecondsItem]:

All the items in the schedule, in unspecified order.

def duration(self) -> float:

The duration of the schedule, in seconds.

This is the maximum of the end time of all the items.

class ScheduleSecondsItem:

A single item within a fixed schedule, representing a single instruction within a basic block.

The time span during which the instruction is scheduled.

instruction_index: int

The index of the instruction within the basic block.

class TimeSpanSeconds:

Representation of a time span in seconds.

duration: float

The duration of the time span, in seconds.

start: float

The start time of the time span, in seconds.

This is relative to the start of the scheduling context (such as the basic block).

end: float

The end time of the time span, in seconds.

This is the sum of the start time and duration.